P.B. Shelley, “The Flower that Smiles Today” (1821-22)

Louis Édouard Fournier,  The Funeral of Shelley  (1889)

Louis Édouard Fournier, The Funeral of Shelley (1889)

The flower that smiles to-day
To-morrow dies; 
All that we wish to stay
Tempts and then flies. 
What is this world's delight? 
Lightning that mocks the night, 
Brief even as bright. 

Virtue, how frail it is! 
Friendship how rare! 
Love, how it sells poor bliss
For proud despair! 
But we, though soon they fall, 
Survive their joy, and all
Which ours we call. 

Whilst skies are blue and bright, 
Whilst flowers are gay, 
Whilst eyes that change ere night
Make glad the day; 
Whilst yet the calm hours creep, 
Dream thou—and from thy sleep
Then wake to weep. 

Likely written in the final year or so of his life, “The Flower that Smiles Today” captures Shelley’s increasing preoccupation with the transience of life and its joys. The final years of Shelley’s life were marked by increasing difficulties, both personal and political: between 1816 and 1819, Shelley and Mary had lost three children, which brought growing strain to their marriage; at the early 1820s came with a series of critical setbacks to England’s reform movement that, just a few years prior, seemed on the verge of creating real change in the country. These issues hang over Shelley’s mutability poems like this one, which ponders how it is possible to survive particular joys—friendship, love, beauty—once we know we can never experience them again.

Some of you might also notice connections, both stylistic and thematic, with some of Byron’s poetry, which often ponders similar questions. Both the Byronic hero and the speaker of Shelley’s poem capture the zeitgeist of Britain’s revolutionary period as it gradually drew to a close: that is, both reflect upon the disappointed hopes that come to people (and societies) that once seemed destined to achieve great things.

This is our Tuesday Verse series. Commentary comes from Jonathan Kerr, who has recently completed his PhD in English with specialization in the Romantics.

Louis Édouard Fournier, The Funeral of Shelley (1889)